Politics cannot, or at least is very difficult to be defined without civil society institutions. The concept of civil society is not new, such as the social contractualists, John Locke, Thomas Hobbes and J.J Rousseau. On the other hand, political economist, Adam Smith, had different notions of civil society.

However, Hegal tried to actualize the freedom which, according to him, was in civil society and he tried to actualize it to the category of state.

Apart from this, civil society also faced criticism. Karl Marx was a great critic of this concept. According to Marx, civil society is the extention of state and state dominates it. After Marx, many
thinkers had defined it: the most important, among them was Antonio Grap who was an Italian Marxist. The concept of civil society spreads in different directions and emerged itself with the democratic process.

Talkwell’s contribution is indeed appreciable in his famous book “The democracy in America” in which he emphasized civil society institutions as a resource to actualized democracy through voluntary organizations. In Talkwell’s period, the concept of civil society was based on the democratization only.

In 18th century, the eastern states, in the name of Socialism and Communism, raised their voice and fought against authoritative colonialists and, at the
same time, civil society became an important site for these political activities and spread rapidly, particularly in Poland’s Solidarity Group, Czechoslovakia and Romania. When the colonialists rule vanished, the importance of civil society was recognized worldwide. It spreads globally in Africa, Latin America and Asia.

However, it emerged differently in different parts of the world. In India it has been associated with rise of capitalist industrialization and urbanization. It rised in India because India had experienced a colonial period and experienced the modernity due to interaction with colonial powers. Different movements arised such as critics of dams, capital development, centralization of power, the Chebko
movement and anti corruption movements are associated with the civil society.

In 19th century, globalization has been shaping the entire globe. This sweeping of market in society is becoming an important category, particularly, in the hands of some multinational funding agencies like World Bank and IMF. It basically argues for democratization in some societies to use this category, who are undergoing on transition from under development to development. Morever, civil society institutions constituted a social capital in society which defined that norms and networks help people to take actions collectively. Therefore, social capital occutes lives in groups, organizations and states, whereas, civil society lays outside the state. Hence, it plays a vital role in public life_ specially in the time of crisis.

Likewise, the Kuna in Panama has association based on traditions and contributes positive functions, such as their discussions are usually related to house construction, airstrip, maintainance and many more.

The “House Committee”, another organization, almost builds 4 houses in every 3 months. In Ghana, Kugadzadzo is a saving club and Tontine are local institutions; they help people. It is true that rural population has strong belief in material support. But gradually, organizational abilities have been very strong in these communities. Their organizational capacity linked them to regional and financially national levels and played a vital role in Agrarian law in Ecuador.

However, in Moldova, on the Cahul district, the members of Pirtita Commune, including teachers and workers attempt to push privatization. They named their organization “Tarifero” which means strong iron. They work for the justice of workers and farmers.

The civil society is not a new term. Its evolution varied from generation to generation and there are many factors which lead the growth of this concept.
Ashwini Roy, an assistant professor of India, mentioned the factors caused the growth of civil society institutions. First, religion, the best example is the Reformation Movement against the Catholic Church. Second, the autocratic political central colonialism, and others include low income, limited resources and legal treatment. The most important is autocratic political central colonialism.

In twenty first century, all guerilla organizations are fighting against the autocratic political central colonialism whether in Sindh, Balochistan and Pakhtunistan. The injustice and authoritarian distribution of resources in Balochistan compelled Baloch youths to fight guerilla wars against Pakistani military. The seperatists movements in Pakistan for a Greater Balochistan, Pakhtunistan and Sindh has influenced the foreign policy of State of Military Dictatorship Pakistan.

In many developed countries, civil societies are working to improve a qualitative way of governance. They work to make stable the accountability, transparency and rule of law.

However, NGOs play a vital role in the
improvement of governmental machinary. NGOs are non-governmental organizations, which almost exist in entire globe. In switzerland communities trust more the NGOs than governmental organizations. In Ghana NGOs are very valued and able to give services. In Nigeria, local government works with NGOs in management of markets. But NGOs are including in the exploitation of African resources and people.

Hence, the concept of civil society is growing day by day because today’s world is very complexed with huge population, industrialization, markets, technology and big territory has compelled people to form associations if state fails to protect human rights, security and fundamental rights of people. Civil society can be radical, conservative and liberal.

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